The step by step guide to configuring FICO. The only document you will need.
Are you looking to configure SAP FICO or just refreshing your memory on certain steps?
This document will show you how to configure it step by step and explain some of the business processes around it.
This page has been created in a way where it is easy for you to navigate through all the configuration steps.
Click on the image below to go directly to a chapter.
Or you can also go through each individual lesson by clicking on the table of contents below to go to any lesson directly.
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Configuring G/L accounts is the first step in the process. This lays down the base of the configuration. In this step we will setup our chart of accounts which will be the highest level in this setup, below which comes the company code and other setup like creating the range in which we will be creating the G/L accounts.
A G/L account is used to capture different type of costs. E.g. there was a sale of your product, this gets captured in a G/L account, if you purchased machinery, this expense gets captured in a G/L account and so on.
Even if you don't understand a step fully, go ahead and set it up and it might make sense later on. If it doesn't, leave a comment below and feel free to ask a question.
.Click on reference IMG
Click on Edit, Copy, Delete, Check company code
Double click on Copy, Delete, check company code. It is easier to copy a company code from another one rather than creating one from scratch.
Click on the copy icon
You will see message which shows you the tables that SAP is reading.
Once that finishes, you will get a popup box where you have to enter the from and the to company code. Enter a company code from which you want to copy the settings. The standard one 0001 can be used. Enter the new company code that you want to create in the To Company code
You will get a popup box which will ask you whether you want to copy G/L accounts from the company code. You can click on no and create your own G/L accounts. Choose yes if the company code that you are copying from has the right G/L accounts and you already know how to create G/L accounts.
Click on the green check box when the information message pops up.
You can also click on the question mark next to the check box to get details of the message. It is a good practice to double click on any error and warning message and click on the question mark to get more details.
Once you click on the green check box, the system will start copying the tables
You will notice the percentage going up
and ocne all the data is coped you will get a message stating the at comany code has been copied.
You will see two tabs, one for selected activities. This shows the company code that you copied from
The completed activites tab show you the new company code that was created.
Click on the green arrow back to go back to the previous screen.
Click on Edit company code data so you can change the name, company code and any other details.
Double click on the company code. Notice that the description says SAP A.G as that was the description of the company code you copied from
Change the description of this newly created company code.
Change the description of this newly created company code.
Enter the new address.
Once you enter all the info, click on the green check box
and click on the save icon
You will see a message that the data was saved.
Chart of accounts contains the G/L accounts that you will be using for this company code. A chart of accounts is the highest level in the financial structure. One chart of accounts can be assigned to many company codes. Each company code can only be assigned to one chart of accounts.
Just like with creation of a company code, it is easier to copy a chart of accounts
Select a chart of accounts and click on the copy icon.
Once you copy the chart of accounts, you need to enter the new 4 character identifier for the chart of accounts. Enter the description and specify the length of the G/L account numbers. G/L account numbers are buckets that contain different types of expenses and revenues. E.g. you can have one G/L accounts for salaries, one for revenues etc. The number here ( Length of G/L account number )specifies how long this G/L account number will be e.g. will it be 123456 or 1234567( number of characters)
Enter the new values in the screen below
After you enter the new values, Click on enter and you will see a message at the bottom of the screen showing you the number of screens copied.
Click on save to save your new chart of accounts.
Remember to always look to assign the object you created with a previous object that was created. This is something that repeats throughout configuration.
in SAP the usual sequence of creating anything is that first you create it and then you assign it. You created a company code and a chart of accounts, but how does SAP know that they are linked to each other. You need to link them together in this step.
Enter the chart of accounts next to the company code
Click on Save
You will get a message that the data was saved
The fiscal year variant determines the accounting periods that a company uses. e.g. is it calendar dependent i.e. January will be the first accounting month for this company code and December will be last month. If it is year dependent, then a company could have April as month 1 of its accounting period. Note- The steps that are being listed are not necessarily in chronological order i.e. there is no correct order in which you have to create these things. It is possible for e.g. to create the posting period before the fiscal year variant etc. It is required to finish all the steps before you start posting.
How does SAP know that our company code uses a calendar dependent fiscal year? We need to assign our company code to a fiscal year variant in this step.
Enter the Fiscal year variant K4 next to your company code
and click on save
Each company code will only allow one or two months(during month end) to be open at any give time. This is controlled by a posting period variant. E.g. if you are in January 2018, you don't want anyone to post in June 2018. The users should get an error message if they accidentally post to a wrong month. First, we need to define a variant for the company code.
Select an existing variant
and click on Copy
Enter the new values
and Click on Save
The next step is to assign values to the posting period variant. This is done in tcode OB52.
Enter the variant that you created in the previous step.
Enter the from per1 and the from year and the to period and the to year. This is the period that you can post to. Under the column 'A' enter the type of account for which this to and from period applies. There are many different entries, D is for customers, K is for vendors, S is for G/L etc. You can have different periods open for each of these categories. After creating all the entries, click on save.
After entering all the info, click on save
You have to ask yourself, how does the system know which posting period your company is using? For this you have to assign the posting period variant to your company code.
Enter the posting period variant next to the company code and click on Save. This can also be done through OBY6.
A retained earnings account is assigned to each P/L account. This is used to carry forward the balances from one Fiscal year to another. All the total of the P/L accounts gets sent to this account when the carry forward program is run. Create a retained earnings account using the tcode OB53 or by using the path below.
Enter a two character identifier in the and P&L statement field e.g. enter 01 and then enter the G/L account that you want to use in the Account field. SAP will give a warning message that this account is not created. You can ignore this message if you get this in your golden client where you do not make any postings. Create this account in the client where you will be making some postings.
Click on the save icon after entering the information.
and you will get a message that the changes have been saved.
Double click on any of the standard document types to view more details of it
If you want to create a new one, you can select a document type and the click on the copy icon.
once the document type is copied, enter the new document type e.g. ZZ interface with Chase
1-Number range Enter the number range that this document type is linked to. Having unique number ranges makes it easy to identify any kind of posting. E.g. number range one is linked to a manual journal entry and the number range is between 100000-1999999. Just by eyeballing a document number, you can tell that this was a manual journal entry based on the number range.
2-Reverse document type-Each document type can be linked to a reverse document type. e.g. when a SA document type is reversed, SAP uses the document type AB for the reversal.
3- Account types allowed- A document type can be restricted for certain postings. E.g. if you are using a document type AA which is meant for asset accounts, you can uncheck the box of customer if you do not want any customer information on your asset postings. This serves as a control for you. Users will get an error message if they try to post to an account type that is not enabled in here.
4- Batch input only- you can flag a document type as batch input only if you do not want anyone to be using this document type during their manual postings. E.g. if you created a new document type that is meant to be for the interfaces between a legacy system and SAP( batch postings), you can restrict this document type to Batch input only, so that all the postings to this document type come from the interface only.
5- Control data- you can make further settings to a document type by using the control data. E.g. if you check the box for enter trading partner, anytime you use this account, it will require a trading partner and it will not allow you to post without it. 6- Required during document entry- Make certain fields required by checking fields in this section. E.g. for vendor invoice you may want to make the reference number mandatory and the users have to enter the vendor invoice number in this anytime them create a vendor invoice.
Click on the Number range information field to view the number range details. The document type can be selected when you are posting a document. E.g. for a vendor invoice, the default document type KR appears.
Create a number range using the menu path below or by using the tcode FBN1. When a Financial document is created, it generates a number. The number ranges are assigned to document types. We can have different number ranges based on the type of activity. E.g. vendor transactions can be in 3 series and customer transactions can be in the 4 series.
Think of when you go to buy something from e.g. Walmart, you will see an invoice number on your receipt. This is the document number that you are creating over here.
Menu Path for creating number ranges or use tcode FBN1
In the screen below Click on the change intervals icon
and then click on add intervals and enter a number range. e.g. 01 and enter a from and to year. The year controls if the number range is year dependent. E.g. if you enter the number range as 01 and then the from number as 10000 and the to number as 1999999 and the year as 2018, then you need to create the same number range for 2019.
You can have number 1000000 in 2018 as well as in 2019. If you enter the year as 9999, then you don't need to create a number range every year as this number range is year independent. You cannot use the same number across years.
You can also copy number ranges from another company code by entering the company code you want to copy from and then click on the copy icon. This is very handy when you created one company code with all the number ranges and then a new company code is required which will need the same number ranges.
Enter the company code you are copying from and the company code to which you are copying these number ranges
SAP FICO configuration document- Next step
This is a mandatory step. Each company code has to be added to this table for tolerance groups for G/L accounts.Complete the settings for the sections shown below.
Enter your company code in this table and enter a description
This is another mandatory step. Define a tolerance group for employees by adding your company code in this table
Click on new entries and add the company code
Double click on the company code and enter maximum amount per document and other information. Change this if you need to (if you copied from an existing entry) or add your own entry and click on save.
Posting keys determine the type of posting that will take place. It tells the system whether to debit or credit an item and what kind of account can be used with this posting key. During posting you will enter a posting key. e.g. if you enter 40, the system knows to debit this item and only allows a G/L account to be posted with this posting key.
Access the posting keys through the menu path below.
The standard posting keys should be sufficient if you are just learning FICO. You can create a new one by clicking on the create icon based on your client's requirement. Double click on a posting key to view its details. You can see whether it is a debit posting key or a credit posting key, what kind of account is allowed to post to it etc.
The standard posting keys should be sufficient if you are just learning FICO. You can create a new one by clicking on the create icon based on your client's requirement.
Double click on a posting key to view its details. You can see whether it is a debit posting key or a credit posting key, what kind of account is allowed to post to it etc.
Posting keys are using during postings. Some transactions only have debit/credit option on the front end, but even these transactions are tied to a posting key in configuration. These are known as enjoy transactions. E.g. FB60 just has a debit and credit option, but if you view document that is posted, you can see that it has a posting key of 31 and 40
Other transaction codes for e.g. Fb01 have the posting key that you can select. These types of transactions allow any kind of posting based on the posting key selected. E.g. you can make a vendor, g/l, asset and other kinds of postings through this. This is where the posting key comes into the picture.
A field status variant contains a list a of field status groups. The field status groups determine which fields are optional, required or suppressed at the time of a posting.
Select a field status variant and click on field status groups on the left. A field status variant contains field status groups.
SAP provides a lot of field status groups by default. You can create a new field status by clicking on new entries at the top or by copying one of the standard field status and changing it to something new.
This field status group controls the fields that are optional, suppressed or required while posting. For e.g. for certain G/L accounts, if you want to make the assignment field as a required field, you can change the field status group to make this field required.
The users will not be able to make a posting without entering an assignment field. A field status group is very important to keep your data accurate. Users can forget to enter certain fields. There should be system checks to ensure that the data is clean.
Go inside a field status group by double clicking on it to see the settings of the field status group.
select a different radio button if you want to change the settings around from suppress, required or optional.
Click on save and you are done.
After creating the field status variant, you need to assign it to a company code.By now you should have gotten comfortable with creating something and then assigning it to your company code. This is how the system knows which field status groups are available for your company code.
A field status variant is assigned to a company code and a field status variant contains field status groups. The Field status groups are then assigned to your G/L account.
Enter the field status variant next to your company code and you are done. This will assign the newly created field status variant to your company code
OBY6 is a tcode that you will be using often. It contains a lot of the settings that we did previously in one step. You can check a lot of your settings over here. You can also maintain them directly over here. Settings like posting period variant, field status variant etc. are assigned here.
Double click on your company code to view the details. You will see the Fiscal year variant, field status variant and other settings over here.
You can directly assign a lot of the entries we assigned previously, in this screen itself.
G/L accounts groups are created so we can have a certain rules for a certain range of accounts and distinguish easily between accounts. You can have different type of account groups e.g. 1- Balance Sheet Accounts 2- Material Accounts 3- Asset Accounts 4 - Revenue Accounts and so on.
In the account groups, you define which range a certain account can be created in. E.g. if you define that Balance sheet accounts fall in the range of 10000-20000, then if an end user tries to create a balance sheet account using the account number 40000, he/she will get an error message.
You can also define which fields appear on the G/L creation screen based on the Account group that you are using. There is a field status group setting at the G/L level as well.
Create an account group using the menu path above or by using tcode OBD4 Click on new entries to create an account group or select existing account groups and click on the copy icon
Enter the new characters for your account groups along with your chart of accounts and assign a from and to account.
Click on save after you create the entries and double click on the account groups to view the field status settings of these account groups.
This field status controls the list of fields that show up on a G/L account master (tcode FS00) and do not control the list of fields that show up when you are making a posting. Double click on any of the fields under Select group to view the settings of this group
In the screen shot below you can see that reconciliation account is set to suppress.
If there was a separate account group for Reconciliation accounts, then it should be set to required. This ensures that your master data is setup correctly and not dependent entirely on the users making the right decisions.
In the screen shot below, there is not short and long text for this G/L account. If the users forgets to enter this information, then we will face issues later on as we won't know the purpose of a G/L account. This should be set to required.
The accounts payable module deals with creation of vendors, creating invoices and paying them on time. First step- Let's create account groups in order to create vendors. Account groups help you in grouping vendors together. You can have different field status group settings based on the vendor group i.e. make certain fields required, suppressed or optional based on the vendor account group. Create a vendor account group following the menu path below.
SAP provides many account groups by default. Double click on a vendor group to view details.
Click on the Field status section to view the settings for this vendor group. This helps in keeping your data clean. If certain vendors require a po box for e.g to be entered every-time, else you face errors later on, you can make it as a required field so that your data is setup correctly. Having clean data is critical for smooth functioning of the business. If you do not control these fields through the system, you will end up having bad data as the users might not always remember to enter certain details.
Click on the group that you want to view on the left of the screen.
You will see all the fields that are under this group. Change it by clicking on the appropriate radio button.
If you want to create a custom account group, select the account group by clicking on the left and click on the copy icon.
Enter the new account group and enter a description for the new account group
and click on save to create the new account group.
You have created an account group, the next step is to create a number range for this account group. This tells us SAP which number it should use when it creates a vendor under a certain account group.
E.g. Foreign vendors could be between 3000-3999, domestic vendors between 4000-4999. This makes it easier for you to identify the type of vendor it is by just looking at the vendor number. Create a number range for a vendor account group using XKN1 or the menu path below.
Click on the change intervals tab to view/change the existing intervals
Click on the plus icon to create new number range intervals.
Enter the new number range
and click on save
Make sure that there is no overlap, else you will get a message.
Fix the overlap and hit enter
you will get a message about transporting number ranges. It is best practice to create the number ranges manually in each client.
Once you create the number ranges and account groups, you need to link them together so SAP knows which number range goes with which account group. Go through the menu path below.
Assign a number range against each vendor account group. Number range XX means the number range is external and needs to be entered by the user and it is not determined by SAP.
In this step you define the maximum different in payments etc. It is a mandatory step that you must complete before you can make outgoing payments.
Enter your company code
Double click on the company code to enter more details
Then click on Save
90% of AP is the step below
The Majority of issues with AP are during the payment run. These issues need to be solved in a very timely manner, so make sure you understand all the steps below well. Leave a comment if you have any questions.
Once your FICO configuration for AP is done, then you can proceed with creating an invoice using FB60
The most important step in AP is setting up a payment program. All invoices gets paid through this program. In order to run the automatic program F110, you need to first setup baseline configuration.
Use tcode FBZP to setup all the APP configuration. Configure in the sequence below.
First step is to setup the company code for the automatic payment program.
Enter the new company code by clicking on new entries
Select a company code by selecting the from the left
and click on the copy icon.
Enter the new company code and click on save. Double click on the company code to view details of it.
Since we haven't created a paying company code yet, we can't add it yet. We will return to this step to define the relationship between sending company code( the one on which the invoice is created) and the paying company code which will be paying the invoices.
Paying company codes-In this step you define the companies that will be paying invoices. Not all company codes have their own bank account and do not pay their own invoices. Many company codes' invoices are paid by another company code that has a bank account.
Click on the paying company codes.
Select an existing company code by clicking on the left.
click on the copy icon. Note-Copying an entry is easier than clicking on new entries and entering details from scratch, especially if the company you are copying is already in production and working fine.
Enter the standard forms and click on save.
Once this step is done, go back to the first step of company codes
Double click on your company code
and enter the company code as the paying company code. If this company code was paying another company code's invoices, then you would enter that company code as the sending company code and the paying company code in the paying company code field.
After entering all the info, click on save and move on to the next step
Payment methods in country- In this step you define the valid payments for each country. E.g. you will define that C- Checks W- Wires A- ACH are valid payment methods for the country 'US' if you use any paying method apart from this, you will get an error message.
Click on Payment methods in country
Select a payment method
and click on the options on the left
Enter the currencies allowed for this payment method. Leave it blank if all currencies can use this payment method.
Payment methods in company code-In the previous step, we defined the valid payment methods by country. In this step we need to define the valid payment methods for each company code.
If a payment method that is not listed here is used in the payment program, you will get an error message.
The easiest way to set this up is to copy the payment methods from an existing company code and change the payment method if required. Select the payment methods by selecting them from the left and click on the copy icon.
copy this payment method to your company code. Enter a minimum and a maximum amount. Click on save. You will need to do this for all the payment methods that you copied.
After you have copied the payment methods that you need , move on to the next step of setting up a House bank.
House bank- A house bank contains all the bank data. The bank key(routing number) and the bank account is contained in a house bank. you need to setup a house bank and then create bank keys and account numbers below this.
Enter the company code for which you want to setup a House bank
In the screen below, click on New entries
Enter a house bank description e.g. Chase and enter the Bank key and Country and click on Create
Enter the address details for the bank and click on the green arrow.
Next- Click on Bank accounts on the left
Click on new entries
Enter the house bank that you created in the previous step and enter an account ID. An account ID further breaks down a House bank. E.g. You can have one account ID for Check and another for Wire. Enter the bank account number, the currency and the G/L account.
If SAP gives you an error that the G/L account doesn't exist, go to FS00 and create a G/L account
and go back and save. Click on no when it asks you if the IBAN should be transported.
Bank Determination-The final step is to setup the bank determination. Note- You have to setup the House bank first and then come back to the bank determination. You will see the House bank is listed last, but the bank determination needs to be your final step. Click on bank determination to get started.
Select your company code and click on the options available on the left.
Click on new entries
Add the following;
Bank Accounts- The next step is to click on Bank accounts ( on the left)
Click on new entries and add the following
Available amounts- Enter the House bank, account ID , days and currency. Enter 99999999 as the available for outgoing payments value. Enter 999 in the days field Click on save and you are done. You should be able to run your payment program now.
Once the FBZP configuration is done, you can proceed with F110.
Terms of payment dictate how quickly we need to pay the vendor e.g.do we need to pay within 30 days, 60 days or immediately Do we get a discount for paying within a certain time frame. Whatever the terms you have negotiated with the vendor, need to be created in there. Follow the menu path below to create a new terms of payment and to view the SAP defined terms of payment.
Click on execute in the screen above and view the standard payment methods. before creating a custom method, check if there is a standard method that is available.
Double click on any payment method to view the details of it. The description of a payment method should reflect how it is setup. E.g. 0002 shows us a few things
1- Customer- If you check this box, it tells the system that this payment term can be used for a customer.
2- Vendor- If you check this box, it tells the system that this payment term can be used for a vendor.
3- Default for baseline date-The default for baseline date determines how the system calculates the baseline date. The baseline date determines the start date for calculating the discount date. E.g. if you create an invoice in the system with a document date of 1/1/2018 and a posting date of 1/5/2018 and if your payment terms provide you with a discount of 5% if you pay within 30 days, from what date should the system calculate the 30 days? Should it be from the document date or invoice date etc. We mostly use the document date to calculate the baseline date.
4- Payment terms - Here you specify the terms. E.g. if you pay within 14 days, you get a 2% discount and the entire invoice is due within 30 days.
You can copy a payment method and create a custom one if required. The payment terms show up when you are creating a vendor invoice.
Asset Accounting is a very popular sub-module in FICO. It helps a company manage its fixed assets. Asset accounting involves creation of fixed assets, depreciating them, transferring assets, retiring them etc. The asset accounting module integrates with the G/L module.
E.g. when a company purchases a building, a car, computers etc. these need to managed as assets on their books. These assets will depreciate over a period of time and then retired or sold. All this is managed through Asset accounting.
The first step in configuring is to setup a chart of depreciation. Create a chart of depreciation using the menu path below
Click on copy reference Chart of Depreciation
Click on the copy icon
Enter the chart of depreciation you are copying from. You can use a standard SAP delivered chart of depreciation and enter the to company code which is your new chart of depreciation.
You will see a message which shows the new chart of depreciation
You will see a message which shows the new chart of depreciation
Click on enter. You will see on the completed activities, chart of depreciation copied to 1000
next go back to the next step, specify description for chart of depreciation.
Change the description of the chart of depreciation and you are done with this step.
A chart of depreciation is the highest level under asset accounting. The depreciation areas are assigned to a chart of depreciation. Create new depreciation areas by going back and selecting the next option of copy/delete depreciation areas.
Double click on a depreciation area to view its details.
For book area 01, you will notice that the posting in G/L is set to Area posts in Real-time.
Do a drop down and explore the other options. Under value maintenance, you can specify what types of values are allowed for this depreciation area.
Compare this with the tax depreciation areas. Create your own depreciation areas based on your client's requirements.
You should be used to creating something and then assigning it in the next step by now. After creating the chart of depreciation, you have to assign it to your company code.
Enter your chart of depreciation next to the company code and click on save.
Next- assign the company code from where the number range will be picked up for this company code. The asset number ranges are created in tcode AS08. In this step we assign the company code to a number range company code.
It is possible for two company codes to use the same number range company code.
you just need to assign which company code's number ranges this company code will use. In most cases, both the entries will be the same.
Asset classes are used to group assets together. E.g. you can have one asset class for vehicles, one for buildings etc. Each asset class can have different fields show up on the asset master( similar to the field status group setting of G/L) and the asset classes can be linked to a different number range so you can easily differentiate between them just by looking at the asset number.
Click on define asset classes using the menu path below.
You will see the existing asset classes.
Select an asset class and click on the copy icon to create your own asset class.
Enter the new class value and description and save that asset class.
As explained in the previous step, the account determination ties an asset class to the G/L accounts. In AO90 you link the account determination to various accounts. If you are creating a new asset class, you may need to create a new account determination as well. Create an account determination by following the menu path below.
Copy an account determination by selecting it and click on the copy icon.
Enter the new value and description. Have a good naming convention for this. This could be the same number as the Asset class or you can have another number but make the number consistent, so if you want to look up the G/L account info for an asset class, you can easily tell what the account determination for an asset class is by looking at the asset class number. E.g if the asset class is 12000, the account determination can also be 12000 or it can be z1200 so if you find another asset class as 11000, you can easily tell that the account determination is 11000 or z1100.
The account determination needs to be updated in the asset class.
Screen layout rules are like the field status groups for an asset. This controls which fields appear on the asset master. Create a screen layout rule by going through the menu path below. Note- if you are creating a new asset class, you can either create the asset class and assign dummy values in the screen layout rules and account determination and then go back and update them after you create the account determination and screen layout rules or create the screen layout rules and account determination first and then create the asset class.
Copy an existing screen layout rule by clicking on the button the next and click on the copy icon.
Enter the new values for the screen layout rule along with a description and click on save to create the new screen layout rule.
This step is required if you initially setup an asset class with dummy values. Go back and update the asset class with the new screen layout rule and account determination
Double click on your asset class
and update the new values
In this step, you link your Account determination to G/L accounts. Basically, this step determines what is your G/L when depreciation posts for Asset class trucks, which is the account that SAP should post to when you retire an asset.
Note- There is no direct relationship between an asset class to a G/L account. An Asset class is linked to an Account determination and the account determination is linked to a G/L account. Use the path below or use the tcode A090.
Select the chart of depreciation from the right of the screen and click on Account determination on the left.
You will then see the list of Account determinations that you created for this depreciation area. Select the account determination for which you want to assign G/L accounts and click on Balance sheet accounts field to assign the acquisitions account etc. and click on the Depreciation field to assign the depreciation account.
Once you click on Balance sheet accounts you will see this list which shows you the accounts that you can enter. Enter the Balance sheet APC- This is the account that SAP posts to when you post an acquisition. Enter an account in the retirement section. Save after entering this. You can come back to the rest of the accounts if you are getting an error message. The error message will tell you that the account is not found.
Once you are done with entering the Balance sheet Accounts, click on the depreciation tab and enter the depreciation values. Enter the following values.
This is a mandatory step- Enter a tax indicator and hit save.
When you post depreciation, the system will use a document type. This document type has settings that we covered earlier. The tcode for maintain a document type is OBA7. Click on execute in the menu path below.
Click on Define document types if you want to go back to OBA7 where you define all document types. Click on Specify Document type for posting of depreciation assign a document type for depreciation posting.
The standard document type AF is generally used for this purpose. Enter the document type AF next to your company code and click on save.
A depreciation key is the most important step in Asset accounting. This determines how the asset depreciates. Depreciation is the reduction in the value of an asset. The depreciation key determines how the asset depreciates. There are various steps in the creation of a depreciation key. Let's go to one of the steps Define Base methods
A base method is assigned to a depreciation key. It contains functions like is this used for normal depreciation or special depreciation. What is the depreciation method and so on. SAP has a lot of standard depreciation keys. Please see if the standard ones meet your requirement before you create a custom one.
Your business will give you the requirements of a depreciation key and you can ask them questions based on what you see in the configuration screens before proceeding with creating it. After you click on execute, you will see a list of methods.
Double click on any base method to see the settings it has. The text here gives you a good idea of how this base method operations. E.g. in base method 0012, you specify a percentage. In base method 001, SAP calculates a percentage from useful life and so on.
Base method 0011 Type of depreciation -Do a drop down to see the types of depreciation, ordinary depreciation, special depreciation etc. Dep method - Here you pick whether this is percentage from useful life, explicit percentage etc. Initially, when you are getting started, you don't have to know what each and every box, drop down does. Start with a standard key and then create a custom one and change one of the settings and see how it impacts the depreciation that you post.
Declining balance methods controls how depreciation is calculated. E.g. if an asset is worth 10,000 and it depreciates 10%, then the depreciation would be $1000 after 10 months, but if the depreciation key has a double declining method, then it will be $1000*2. Many of the tax depreciation keys are set to double declining etc. When you get a request from the business to setup a tax key, they will specify if there is no declining balance, double decline etc. Click on execute from the menu path below to access the Declining balance methods
Here you can see the decimal factor, this controls the value with which the depreciation gets multiplied. in our previous example, we discussed how an asset gets assigned a double declining method. You would select the declining balance method 002 as it has a declining factor of 2. SAP will multiply the depreciation by 2. If you don't want any declining balance method, then select the first method. This is mainly used for book area 01( the one that posts to the G/L)
A multi level method controls other factors of a depreciation key e.g. should it start depreciation from the acquisition value or the netbook value etc. You can assign many levels to this method. Here you specify how the depreciation works in year 1, 2 etc. You can have different percentages for every year. Click on execute and you will see all the multilevel methods.
Select the multilevel method and click on levels on the left.
Here is where you assign a different percentage by year.
Always do a drop down on the values to see the available options. Do a drop down on the base value to see what all the options are. You mainly use the acquisition value or netbook value to calculate depreciation. Talk to your business if you have questions on which value the depreciation should be calculated on.
Period control determines the period from when depreciation should start. E.g. if you purchase an asset on 1/1/2018, when do you start depreciating it? This varies based on the tax laws. E.g you might be required to depreciate from the start of the year regardless of when you purchased it or you might start depreciating it only from the start of the month from when you purchased it. Click on execute in the menu path below.
SAP provides a lot of period controls. You can identify their settings by the description. In this step you are creating the shell.
After this, you can define the calendar settings for a period control. Here you specify the dates that tell the system what dates it should be using for each period control.
Enter the Fiscal year variant and the period control and then enter the month from which it should start calculating depreciation. The period control controls your depreciation start date. Create an asset using a depreciation key that uses a period control that uses start of the year depreciation and assign another key that uses a period control that uses mid year convention. Assign this key to another depreciation area.
You will notice that the depreciation start date on the asset master is different for these depreciation areas. This is what determines the depreciation start date, but note that you can override the depreciation start date.
Period control method-In the depreciation key, we assign a period control method which is a collection of period controls. Here you specify which period control the system uses for retirements, acquisitions etc.
Each period control method needs values for acquisitions, additions, retirements, transfers etc. This determines which days should the depreciation be calculated up to.
The depreciation of these period controls should be good so just by looking at the depreciation you can tell what this period control method does, else you will have to go into each of the period controls and view the config.
After creating all the components that link to a depreciation key, you can put this altogether in a depreciation key. Use the tcode AFAMA or the menu path below to create a depreciation key. A depreciation key determines how an asset depreciates.
After you click on execute, you are brought to the main configuration screen of a depreciation key.
You can double click on the key to view some of its details and you can also select it and click on the assignment of calculation on the left to see what is assigned to this key.
A depreciation key is linked to a multilevel method, period control and other components that we previously saw. View all the calculation methods that this key is linked to. If you make a change, it is better that you first copy the depreciation key to a zkey and then make a change to one of the calculation methods.
In this step you assign if a depreciation area inherits Acquisition values from another depreciation area and if one depreciation area is identical to another area. Some tax areas inherit APC values from another tax area and are identical. E.g. if area 11 inherits values from area 10, then you can't add a separate value to area 11. The field will be grayed out and area 11 will get the same value as area 10.
Click on execute and you will see that all the tax depreciation areas inherit the values from book area 01. E.g. if you enter an acquisition as $10,000 for book area 01, then this $10,000 gets carried over to all the other depreciation areas. You can still change these values on the other areas. Identical checkbox- If the identical checkbox is checked, then that depreciation area cannot have an acquisition value that is different from the one it inherited from. The field becomes grayed out so you can't make any changes when this box is checked.
This step is very similar to the previous step, but instead of specifying which depreciation areas inherit APC values from the other, you specify the depreciation terms that get transferred from one depreciation area to another.
For e.g. Area 12 is inheriting from area 11. You can always change this as the identical checkbox is not flagged.
In this step you can define which depreciation areas are applicable for an asset class. The default depreciation key and useful and layout is also specified in this step.
Select the asset class from the right of the screen and click on depreciation areas on the left
Check the deact box for the depreciation areas that you don't need for an asset class.
Enter the default depreciation key, layout and useful life for the asset class and save and you are done with this step.
Create number ranges for an asset class in this step. Some of these steps repeat in a few places.
Enter your company code for which you are creating the number range
Click on Change intervals in the screen shot above to create a number range.
Create a number range and enter a from and to number range
Click on save after entering your number range and click on the green checkbox when the screen below shows up.
Transaction types determine what kind of posting it is. In this step we are going over the transaction types for acquisitions. E.g. is it a transaction type for acquisition in the current year, is it a transaction type for an acquisition on a prior year asset.
After you click on execute you will see two options, click on the first option.
view the existing transaction types.
Double click on the transaction type and this gives you the behind the scenes of this transaction type. Is it a debit transaction or a credit transaction, should it post net or should it post gross etc.
As usual, select an existing transaction type and copy it to make your own transaction type.
Enter the new transaction type and customize any of the settings
your new transaction type is created
A lot of times you create a new transaction type to limit it to one depreciation area. This transaction type is usually a copy of a standard transaction type, but the standard transaction type posts to all the depreciation areas and you may need this new transaction type to post an adjustment to one of the depreciation areas only.
Double click on limit transaction type to a depreciation area from the screen below. This is the same screen as creating a transaction type, but you are limiting it to a depreciation area.
select the transaction type that you want to limit to a depreciation area and click on depreciation area specifications on the left.
Click on new entries to enter the depreciation area that you are restricting this transaction type to.
Enter the following
When you post to an asset using this transaction type, click on the simulate or change line items
and see that it is only posting to depreciation area 01 that you restricted it to.
Just the same way you defined transaction types for acquisitions, in this step you can define transaction types for retirements. The exact same principles apply to this transaction type. the standard SAP retirement transaction types are generally sufficient, but there might be cases where you need to create a custom one.
A custom transaction type might also be required or you can change a standard one for reporting purposes. Each transaction type maps to a certain place in the asset history sheet. You can change where it maps to in this setting. Click on Execute to view the standard transaction types.
Click on define transaction types for retirements to view the standard transaction types.
Double click on a transaction type to view its details.
The settings here are the same as the transaction types for acquisitions. At the bottom of the screen, you will see which section of the asset history sheet this maps to.
Just the same way you limited the transaction type for acquisitions, you can also limit the transaction types for retirements to a certain depreciation area. Click on the Limit Transaction types to depreciation areas
Select the transaction type from the right and click on depreciation area specifications on the left.
Click on new entries to enter the transaction type that you are limiting to
Enter your values and click on save.
There are a few settings to be maintained when we transfer assets from a legacy system. We need to specify a legacy transfer date. This is the date on which the assets were valued in the legacy system. e.g. if you are going live with fixed assets in SAP on 1/1/2018, then you need to enter 12/31/2017 or 1/1/2018 as your legacy transfer date as the value of the assets that you are bringing over is as of this date. In some cases you might be in the middle of the year e.g. 3/1/2018 in a legacy system, but you decide to bring the asset balances as of 12/31/2017 and then calculate depreciation for periods 1-3 in SAP.
Enter your legacy transfer date here. You use transaction code AS91 to bring over legacy assets. The capitalization date of this asset cannot be after this legacy transfer date. If it is after this transfer date, then you will use the standard tcode as01 to create the asset shell.
Below is the error message that you will receive if an incorrect capitalization date is used.
Change it to fix the error and save
Once you enter the legacy transfer date, enter the last period in which depreciation was posted in the legacy system. This tells SAP when it should start posting depreciation.
Select your company code and click on period which depreciation was last posted from the left
Enter the fiscal year and the period. The system will look to post from the next period in SAP.
Once you are done with this click on save. After these settings are done you can start loading assets in your system using AS91.
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